Orden alfabetico en word mac
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Irish & Celtic Names and Meanings | 's of Pet, Girl, Boy and Dog Names
In mathematics, a lexicographical order is the generalization of the alphabetical order to other data types, such as sequences of digits or numbers. When applied to strings or sequences that, beside alphabetical characters, may contain also digits, numbers or more elaborate types of elements, the alphabetical order is generally called a lexicographical order. To determine which of two strings of characters comes when arranging in alphabetical order, their first letters are compared. If they differ, then the string whose first letter comes earlier in the alphabet comes before the other string.
If the first letters are the same, then the second letters are compared, and so on. If a position is reached where one string has no more letters to compare while the other does, then the first shorter string is deemed to come first in alphabetical order. Capital letters upper case are generally considered to be identical to their corresponding lower case letters for the purposes of alphabetical ordering, though conventions may be adopted to handle situations where two strings differ only in capitalization.
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Various conventions also exist for the handling of strings containing spaces , modified letters such as those with diacritics , and non-letter characters such as marks of punctuation. The result of placing a set of words or strings in alphabetical order is that all the strings beginning with the same letter are grouped together; and within that grouping all words beginning with the same two-letter sequence are grouped together; and so on. The system thus tends to maximize the number of common initial letters between adjacent words.
Alphabetical order was first used in the 1st millennium BC by Northwest Semitic scribes using the Abjad system. In the 14th century, the author of the Fons memorabilium universi used a classification, but used alphabetical order within some of the books. In Robert Cawdrey had to explain in Table Alphabeticall , the first monolingual English dictionary, "Nowe if the word, which thou art desirous to finde, begin with a then looke in the beginning of this Table, but if with v looke towards the end.
The standard order of the modern ISO basic Latin alphabet is:. The above words are ordered alphabetically. As comes before Aster because they begin with the same two letters and As has no more letters after that whereas Aster does. The next three words come after Aster because their fourth letter the first one that differs is r , which comes after e the fourth letter of Aster in the alphabet.
Those words themselves are ordered based on their sixth letters l , n and p respectively. Then comes At , which differs from the preceding words in the second letter t comes after s.
Baby & Pet Names of Irish & Celtic Descent.
Ataman comes after At for the same reason that Aster came after As. Attack follows Ataman based on comparison of their third letters, and Baa comes after all of the others because it has a different first letter.
When some of the strings being ordered consist of more than one word, i. In the first approach, all strings are ordered initially according to their first word, as in the sequence:. The second approach is the one usually taken in dictionaries, and it is thus often called dictionary order by publishers. The first approach has often been used in book indexes , although each publisher traditionally set its own standards for which approach to use therein; there was no ISO standard for book indexes ISO before In French, modified letters such as those with diacritics are treated the same as the base letter for alphabetical ordering purposes.
However languages that use such letters systematically generally have their own ordering rules. See Language-specific conventions below. In most cultures where family names are written after given names , it is still desired to sort lists of names as in telephone directories by family name first. In this case, names need to be reordered to be sorted properly.
Capturing this rule in a computer collation algorithm is difficult, and simple attempts will necessarily fail. For example, unless the algorithm has at its disposal an extensive list of family names, there is no way to decide if "Gillian Lucille van der Waal" is "van der Waal, Gillian Lucille", "Waal, Gillian Lucille van der", or even "Lucille van der Waal, Gillian". Ordering by surname is frequently encountered in academic contexts. Within a single multi-author paper, ordering the authors alphabetically by surname, rather than by other methods such as reverse seniority or subjective degree of contribution to the paper, is seen as a way of "acknowledg[ing] similar contributions" or "avoid[ing] disharmony in collaborating groups".
Sometimes if a phrase begins with a very common word such as "the" or "a" , that word is ignored or moved to the end of the phrase, but this is not always the case. The book title " The Shining " might be treated as "Shining", or "Shining, The" and therefore would be ordered before the book title " Summer of Sam ", although it may also be treated as simply "The Shining" and therefore would be ordered after "Summer of Sam".
All three alphabetization methods are fairly easy to create by algorithm, but many programs rely instead on simple lexicographic ordering. The prefixes M' and Mc in Irish and Scottish surnames are abbreviations for Mac , and are sometimes alphabetized as if the spelling is Mac in full. Thus McKinley might be listed before Mackintosh as it would be if it had been spelled out as "MacKinley". Since the advent of computer-sorted lists, this type of alphabetization is less frequently encountered, though it is still used in British telephone directories. This is true even when the ligature is not purely stylistic, such as in loanwords and brand names.
Special rules may need to be adopted to sort strings which vary only by whether two letters are ligaturized. When some of the strings contain numerals or other non-letter characters , various approaches are possible. Sometimes such characters are treated as if they came before or after all the letters of the alphabet. Another method is for numbers to be sorted alphabetically as they would be spelled: for example would be sorted as if spelled out "seventeen seventy-six", and 24 heures du Mans as if spelled "vingt-quatre